Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology

Carbacyclin induces carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in cardiomyocytes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta independent of the IP receptor signaling pathway.

PMID 17540403


Prostacyclin (PGI2) and its analogues exert cardioprotective effects via the rhodopsin type membrane PGI2 receptor, IP. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta is a nuclear receptor abundantly expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays a pivotal role in maintaining constitutive mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO). Recently, a novel signaling pathway of PGI2 via PPARdelta has been demonstrated in non-cardiac tissues. We therefore examined whether carbacyclin (cPGI2), a PGI2 analogue, up-regulates transcriptional expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, via PPARdelta in cardiomyocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of cPGI2 increased CPT-1 mRNA expression in murine hearts. Transcriptional activity was evaluated by PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-luciferase reporter gene assay in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. CPT-1 mRNA expression and PPRE promoter activity were significantly increased by cPGI2 in a concentration-dependent manner, where PPRE has been mapped to the promoter region of the CPT-1 gene. Moreover, the elevation of CPT-1 mRNA expression and PPRE promoter activity by cPGI2 was not abolished by H-89, a potent protein kinase A inhibitor, but was significantly inhibited in cardiomyocytes over-expressing a dominant-negative type of PPARdelta. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that binding of PPARdelta to PPRE in the CPT-1 gene promoter is enhanced in response to cPGI2 stimulation. In addition, down-regulation of CPT-1 mRNA expression in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia was attenuated by cPGI2. These results indicate that cPGI2 induces CPT-1 mRNA expression through PPARdelta, independent of the IP receptor signaling pathway, suggesting a possibility that cPGI2 modulates cardiac energy metabolism by activating FAO via PPARdelta.