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Experimental & applied acarology

Assessment of pesticide susceptibility for Typhlodromus exhilaratus and Typhlodromus phialatus strains (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from vineyards in the south of France.


PMID 17564789

Abstract

Two species of Phytoseiidae predominated in and around vineyards in an experimental site in the south of France: Typhlodromus exhilaratus is the dominant species on grapes, whereas T. phialatus occurs in the uncultivated areas surrounding these crops. To help understand their distribution, this study aims to determine their susceptibility to a fungicide (dimethomorph + mancozeb) and an insecticide (chlorpyriphos-ethyl), which have been widely used at the experimental site for at least four years. The hypothesis tested is that the effects of these two pesticides differ between T. exhilaratus and T. phialatus. Two populations of T. exhilaratus, one collected on a vine crop where the two pesticides were applied and the other in an unsprayed orchard of Sorbus domestica, and one population of T. phialatus collected on Viburnum tinus from uncultivated areas adjacent to the vine crop, were tested under laboratory conditions. The fungicide seems to affect the females of T. phialatus more than those of T. exhilaratus from vine. However, at the recommended field concentration the female mortality rates of the three strains were low and female fecundities were not significantly different. Conversely, mortality rates were very high for the three strains at the recommended field concentration of chlorpyrifos-ethyl. The strain of T. exhilaratus from vine seems to be more tolerant and 20% of females survived the recommended field rate. This suggests better survival after insecticide application than females of T. phialatus (100% mortality at a lower concentration than the recommended rate). As extrapolation of laboratory results to the field is often irrelevant, these differences could be just one of several factors affecting the spatial segregation of the two species in the agrosystem considered. Possible explanations other than pesticides for the poor settlement of T. phialatus in vine plots are discussed.

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