The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Comparative protection against liver inflammation and fibrosis by a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and a nonredox-type 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

PMID 17766677


In this study, we examined the relative contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), two major proinflammatory pathways up-regulated in liver disease, to the progression of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Separate administration of 4-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (SC-236), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and CJ-13,610, a 5-LO inhibitor, to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced fibrosis as revealed by the analysis of Sirius Red-stained liver sections without affecting necroinflammation. Conversely, combined administration of SC-236 and 4-[3-[4-(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)-phenylthio]]phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-carboxamide (CJ-13,610) reduced both necroinflammation and fibrosis. These findings were confirmed in 5-LO-deficient mice receiving SC-236, which also showed reduced hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression. Interestingly, SC-236 and CJ-13,610 significantly increased the number of nonparenchymal liver cells with apoptotic nuclei (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive). Additional pharmacological profiling of SC-236 and CJ-13,610 was performed in macrophages, the primary hepatic inflammatory cell type. In these cells, SC-236 inhibited prostaglandin (PG) E2 formation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas CJ-13,610 blocked leukotriene B4 biosynthesis. Of note, the simultaneous addition of SC-236 and CJ-13,610 resulted in a higher inhibitory profile on PGE2 biosynthesis than the dual COX/5-LO inhibitor licofelone. These drugs differentially regulated interleukin-6 mRNA expression in macrophages. Taken together, these findings indicate that both COX-2 and 5-LO pathways are contributing factors to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis and that these two pathways of the arachidonic acid cascade represent potential targets for therapy.

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CJ-13610, ≥98% (HPLC)