British journal of pharmacology

Effects of angiotensin II blockade on inflammation-induced alterations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcium channel blockers.

PMID 17965735


Inflammation elevates plasma verapamil concentrations but diminishes pharmacological response. Angiotensin II is a pro-inflammatory mediator. We examined the effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil, as well as the binding properties and amounts of its target protein in calcium channels, in a rat model of inflammation. We used 4 groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-280 g): inflamed-placebo, inflamed-treated, control-placebo and control-treated. Inflammation as pre-adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting Mycobacterium butyricum on day 0. From day 6 to 12, 30 mg kg(-1) oral valsartan or placebo was administered twice daily. On day 12, a single oral dose of 25 mg kg(-1) verapamil was administered and prolongation of the PR interval measured and plasma samples collected for verapamil and nor-verapamil analysis. The amounts of the target protein Ca(v)1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels in heart was measured by Western blotting and ligand binding with (3)H-nitrendipine. Inflammation reduced effects of verapamil, although plasma drug concentrations were increased. This was associated with a reduction in ligand binding capacity and amount of the calcium channel target protein in heart extracts. Valsartan significantly reversed the down-regulating effect of inflammation on verapamil's effects on the PR interval, and the lower level of protein binding and the decreased target protein. Reduced responses to calcium channel blockers in inflammatory conditions appeared to be due to a reduced amount of target protein that was reversed by the angiotensin II antagonist, valsartan.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

(±)-Norverapamil hydrochloride, ≥98% (HPLC)
C26H36N2O4 · HCl