Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology

A comparison of the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of hexanedione derivatives on human non-neuronal lines and the neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y.

PMID 17973901


The effects of the alpha-diketone derivatives 2,3- and 3,4-hexanediones were investigated in three non-neuronal cell lines (MCF7, HepG(2) and CaCo-2) as well as in the neuroblastoma line, SH-SY5Y. The MTT reduction assay was employed to determine the necrotic effects of the alpha-diketones and the neurotoxin 2,5-hexanedione over 4, 24 and 48 hr exposures. Flow cytometry was also used to study the effects of the three isomers on the cell cycle of the SH-SY5Y line only. With 2,5-hexanedione, the mean MTT IC(50) decreased more than 10-fold from 4 to 48 hr. The toxicities of both alpha-diketones were similar, with a more than 18-fold increase in sensitivity of the SH-SY5Y at 24 hr compared to that of 4 hr. With flow cytometry at 48 hr, SH-SY5Y apoptosis with 2,5-hexanedione rose throughout the concentration range evaluated (0-30 mM) while 2,3- and 3,4-hexanediones showed apoptosis over the concentration range 1-1.6 mM, with 3,4-hexanedione being the more potent compared to the 2,3-isomer. At 1.6 mM nearly all the cells had entered apoptosis in the presence of the 3,4-isomer, (94.9 +/- 1.4%) but only 57.5 +/- 4.1% of the 2,3-isomer-treated cells had reached that stage. The 2,3- and 3,4-isomers in diets alone may not pose a serious threat to human health. Further studies may be necessary to evaluate the effects of other dietary components on their toxicity. These alpha-diketones also display a degree of toxic selectivity towards neuroblastoma cells, which may have therapeutic implications.