The Journal of biological chemistry

Blockade of tumor growth due to matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition is mediated by sequential activation of beta1-integrin, ERK, and NF-kappaB.

PMID 17991734


We previously showed that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 inhibition using an adenovirus-mediated delivery of MMP-9 small interfering RNA (Ad-MMP-9), caused senescence in medulloblastoma cells. Regardless of whether or not Ad-MMP-9 would induce apoptosis, the possible signaling mechanism is still obscure. In this report, we demonstrate that Ad-MMP-9 induced apoptosis in DAOY cells as determined by propidium iodide and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. Ad-MMP-9 infection induced the release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Ad-MMP-9 infection stimulated ERK, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated an increase in NF-kappaB activation. ERK inhibition, using a kinase-dead mutant for ERK, ameliorated NF-kappaB activation and caspase-mediated apoptosis in Ad-MMP-9-infected cells. beta1-Integrin expression in Ad-MMP-9-infected cells also increased, and this increase was reversed by the reintroduction of MMP-9. We found that the addition of beta1 blocking antibodies inhibited Ad-MMP-9-induced ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that MMP-9 inhibition induces apoptosis due to altered beta1-integrin expression in medulloblastoma. In addition, ERK activation plays an active role in this process and functions upstream of NF-kappaB activation to initiate the apoptotic signal.