Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology

Characterization of bromadiolone resistance in a danish strain of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, by hepatic gene expression profiling of genes involved in vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation.

PMID 17994578


The present study characterizes the anticoagulant resistance mechanism in a Danish bromadiolone-resistant strain of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), with a Y139C VKORC1 mutation. We compared liver expression of the VKORC1 gene, which encodes a protein of the vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex, the NQO1 gene, which encodes a NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase and the Calumenin gene between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible rats upon saline and bromadiolone administration. Additionally, we established the effect of bromadiolone on the gene expression in the resistant and susceptible phenotype. Bromadiolone had no effect on VKORC1 and NQO1 expression in resistant rats, but induced significantly Calumenin expression in the susceptible rats. Calumenin expression was similar between the resistant and the susceptible rats upon saline administration but twofold lower in resistant rats after bromadiolone treatment. These results indicate that Danish bromadiolone resistance does not involve an overexpression of calumenin. Independent of the treatment, we observed a low VKORC1 expression in resistant rats, which in conjugation with the Y139C polymorphism most likely explains the low VKOR activity and the enhanced need for vitamin K observed in Danish resistant rats. Furthermore the bromadiolone resistance was found to be associated with a low expression of the NQO1 gene.

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Bromadiolon, PESTANAL®, analytical standard