Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

Chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 improves obesity-induced cardiac contractile defect in ob/ob mice.

PMID 18070761


Low-molecular weight chromium compounds, such as chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)], improve insulin sensitivity, although toxicity is a concern. We synthesized a novel chromium complex, chromium (d-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(d-phe)(3)], in an attempt to improve insulin sensitivity with reduced toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare the two chromium compounds on cardiac contractile function in ob/ob obese mice. C57BL lean and ob/ob obese mice were randomly divided into three groups: H(2)O, Cr(d-phe)(3), or Cr(pic)(3) (45 mug/kg per day orally for 6 months). The glucose tolerance test displayed improved glucose clearance by Cr(d-phe)(3) but not Cr(pic)(3). Myocytes from ob/ob mice exhibited depressed peak shortening (PS) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/-dL/dt), prolonged time-to-PS and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90), reduced electrically stimulated rise in intracellular Ca(2+) (Deltafura-2 fluorescence intensity), and slowed intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Although a 3-month Cr(d-phe)(3) treatment for a separate group of ob/ob and lean 2-month-old mice only rectified reduced +/-dL/dt in ob/ob mice, all mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+) abnormalities were significantly attenuated or ablated by 6 months of Cr(d-phe)(3) but not Cr(pic)(3) treatment (except TR90). Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger expression were depressed in ob/ob mice, which were reversed by both Cr(d-phe)(3) and Cr(pic)(3), with a more pronounced effect from Cr(d-phe)(3). Cr(d-phe)(3) corrected reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and improved basal phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor, as well as insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor in ob/ob myocytes. Heart homogenates from ob/ob mice had enhanced oxidative stress and protein carbonyl formation compared with the lean group, which were attenuated by both Cr(d-phe)(3) and Cr(pic)(3). Our data suggest that the new Cr(d-phe)(3) compound possesses better cardio-protective and insulin-sensitizing properties against obesity.

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Chromium picolinate, ≥98% (HPLC)