FEMS microbiology letters

Molecular characterization of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Cladosporium fulvum.

PMID 18096020


The benzimidazole fungicide thiophanate-methyl is commonly applied to control leaf mould of tomato caused by Cladosporium fulvum in China. In this study, 32 isolates of C. fulvum were examined for their sensitivities to thiophanate-methyl, and two benzimidazole-resistant (BenR) phenotypes BenR1 and BenR2 were identified. The BenR1 isolates were resistant to thiophanate-methyl, but were more sensitive to the phenylcarbamate fungicide diethofencarb than the wild-type isolates. The BenR2 isolates resistant to thiophanate-methyl were insensitive to diethofencarb. All tested isolates were sensitive to the dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. The complete beta-tubulin gene was isolated from this fungus to study its potential role in benzimidazole resistance. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the beta-tubulin gene showed that the BenR1 isolates had a point mutation at codon 198, causing a substitution of glutamic acid to alanine. In the BenR2 isolates, a point mutation at codon 200 causing a substitution of phenylalanine to tyrosine was detected. Based on these point mutations, a multiplex allele-specific PCR method was developed successfully for the first time to detect two point mutations at the beta-tubulin gene simultaneously in single PCR amplifications.