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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Semicarbazide formation in flour and bread.


PMID 18303820

Abstract

Azodicarbonamide, an approved food additive, is commonly used as a flour additive and dough conditioner in the United States and Canada. A number of researchers have clearly established a link between the use of azodicarbonamide and semicarbazide contamination in commercial bread products. However, all of these studies have primarily focused on the final baked product and have not extensively investigated the processing and conditions that affect the final semicarbazide levels. In this study, a previously developed method for measuring free semicarbazide in bread was applied to dough samples during the mixing and kneading process. Additionally, flour and bread samples were spiked with biurea or azodicarbonamide to help elucidate semicarbazide formation pathways. The results showed that semicarbazide was not formed as a byproduct of azodicarbonamide decomposition to biurea, which occurs upon the addition of water. Indeed, semicarbazide was not detected after room temperature or elevated temperature dough maturation, but only after baking. It was concluded that although azodicarbonamide is the initial starting material, semicarbazide formation in bread occurs through a stable intermediate, biurea.

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A96606
Azodicarboxamide, 97%
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