Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Time-dependent effects of Klebsiella pneumoniae endotoxin (KPLPS) on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats: return of the parameters in 96-hour KPLPS rats to the control levels.

PMID 18308837


It has been reported that theophylline is primarily metabolized via hepatic CYP1A1/2, 2B1/2, and 3A1/2, and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU) is primarily formed via CYP1A1/2 in rats. Compared with control rats, the expression of CYP1A subfamily, 2B1/2, and 3A subfamily significantly decreased 24 h (24-h KPLPS rats) after intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPLPS) to rats but returned to that in control rats after 96 h (96-h KPLPS rats). After intravenous or oral administration of theophylline to 24-h KPLPS rats, the values for the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity of theophylline and 1,3-DMU became significantly greater (46.5 and 34.0% increase after intravenous and oral administration, respectively) and smaller (36.3 and 21.6% decrease, respectively), respectively. Because theophylline is a low hepatic extraction ratio drug in rats, the above results could have been due to significantly slower CL(int) for the disappearance of theophylline and for the formation of 1,3-DMU (37.1 and 60.6% decrease, respectively). However, in 96-h KPLPS rats, the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline and 1,3-DMU returned fully or partially to those in control rats. These findings indicate the existence of time-dependent effects of KPLPS on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline and 1,3-DMU in rats.