Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Diphenylamine metabolism in 'braeburn' apples stored under conditions conducive to the development of internal browning.

PMID 18380463


Diphenylamine metabolism and ethylene action were evaluated as factors influencing the development of 'Braeburn' apple internal browning and cavitation during cold storage. Apples treated with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) and/or the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) were held at 1 degrees C for up to 6 months in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) containing 1 kPa of O2 and 3 kPa of CO2. Cortex tissues from fruit without disorders as well as from symptomatic and asymptomatic areas of fruit with disorders were analyzed for DPA and DPA derivative content. Internal browning and cavities developed in control and 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in CA, whereas air-stored and CA fruit treated with DPA or with DPA and 1-MCP prior to storage did not develop disorders. Depending on the storage regimen and duration, less DPA was detected in 1-MCP-treated fruit. The 4-hydroxydiphenylamine (4OHDPA) content of control fruit decreased during air storage duration but increased between 2 and 4 months in CA storage. 4OHDPA content in 1-MCP-treated fruit increased with storage duration in CA but not air. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine (NODPA) was detected after 2 months in control fruit stored in air or CA and in 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in CA, and NODPA content in control fruit was higher compared to that in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Accumulation of 4-methoxydiphenylamine (4MeODPA) in control fruit stored in air increased with storage duration, but 4MeODPA content did not change in 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in air or CA. 2-Nitrodiphenylamine content was reduced by prestorage treatment with 1-MCP, but storage environment and duration had no effect on its accumulation. The results indicate that CA storage increases the risk of disorder development in 'Braeburn' apples, that DPA can prevent disorder development, and that the content of DPA and DPA derivatives is influenced by storage environment and ethylene action. A clear relationship between DPA derivative formation and storage conditions that promote internal browning was not apparent.