The Plant cell

Dual fatty acyl modification determines the localization and plasma membrane targeting of CBL/CIPK Ca2+ signaling complexes in Arabidopsis.

PMID 18502848


Arabidopsis thaliana calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) interact specifically with a group of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). CBL/CIPK complexes phosphorylate target proteins at the plasma membrane. Here, we report that dual lipid modification is required for CBL1 function and for localization of this calcium sensor at the plasma membrane. First, myristoylation targets CBL1 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Second, S-acylation is crucial for endoplasmic reticulum-to-plasma membrane trafficking via a novel cellular targeting pathway that is insensitive to brefeldin A. We found that a 12-amino acid peptide of CBL1 is sufficient to mediate dual lipid modification and to confer plasma membrane targeting. Moreover, the lipid modification status of the calcium sensor moiety determines the cellular localization of preassembled CBL/CIPK complexes. Our findings demonstrate the importance of S-acylation for regulating the spatial accuracy of Ca2+-decoding proteins and suggest a novel mechanism that enables the functional specificity of calcium sensor/kinase complexes.