Journal of bacteriology

Elucidation of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB.

PMID 18502868


The catabolism of 4-hydroxyacetophenone in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB is known to proceed through the intermediate formation of hydroquinone. Here, we provide evidence that hydroquinone is further degraded through 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and maleylacetate to beta-ketoadipate. The P. fluorescens ACB genes involved in 4-hydroxyacetophenone utilization were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of a 15-kb DNA fragment showed the presence of 14 open reading frames containing a gene cluster (hapCDEFGHIBA) of which at least four encoded enzymes are involved in 4-hydroxyacetophenone degradation: 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase (hapA), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate hydrolase (hapB), 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (hapE), and maleylacetate reductase (hapF). In between hapF and hapB, three genes encoding a putative intradiol dioxygenase (hapG), a protein of the Yci1 family (hapH), and a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (hapI) were found. Downstream of the hap genes, five open reading frames are situated encoding three putative regulatory proteins (orf10, orf12, and orf13) and two proteins possibly involved in a membrane efflux pump (orf11 and orf14). Upstream of hapE, two genes (hapC and hapD) were present that showed weak similarity with several iron(II)-dependent extradiol dioxygenases. Based on these findings and additional biochemical evidence, it is proposed that the hapC and hapD gene products are involved in the ring cleavage of hydroquinone.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

4′-Hydroxyacetophenone, 99%