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The Biochemical journal

Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation and procollagen processing in chick-embryo calvaria by a derivative of pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate. Characterization of the diethyl ester as a proinhibitor.


PMID 1850989

Abstract

The biochemical and morphological consequences of procollagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibition by pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) and its diethyl ester (diethyl-2,4-PDC) were studied in chick-embryo calvaria, which predominantly synthesize type I collagen. Half-maximal inhibition of tissue hydroxyproline formation required 650 microM-2,4-PDCA, whereas the Ki with respect to chicken prolyl 4-hydroxylase in vitro was 2 microM. In contrast, half-maximal inhibition was caused by 10 microM-diethyl-2,4-PDC in the intact calvaria, although chicken prolyl 4-hydroxylase in vitro was not inhibited even at 1 mM. The collagenous material produced in the presence of diethyl-2,4-PDC showed an altered 'melting' profile and a lowering of the transition temperature by 10 degrees C, indicating misalignment and thermal instability of its triple-helical structure. Amount and electrophoretic mobility of procollagen type I chains were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of partially processed species and alpha-chains were decreased, without change in mobility. This marked effect on procollagen-collagen conversion in the intact calvaria suggests that the underhydroxylated collagenous material generated in the presence of diethyl-2,4-PDC is resistant to or acts as endogenous secondary inhibitor of type I procollagen N-proteinase. Electron microscopy of treated calvaria cells showed dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and numerous phagolysosomes, indicating intracellular retention and lysosomal degradation of the newly synthesized underhydroxylated collagenous material. In summary, these results identify 2,4-PDCA and diethyl-2,4-PDC as the first prolyl 4-hydroxylase-directed inhibitor/proinhibitor pair that affects intra- and extra-cellular events during collagen formation.

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04473
2,4-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, ≥98.0%
C7H5NO4