Antioxidants & redox signaling

15d-PGJ2 upregulates synthesis of IL-8 in endothelial cells through induction of oxidative stress.

PMID 18665800


15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is a cyclopentenone prostaglandin regarded as antiinflammatory mediator, which can act through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) or through G protein-coupled surface receptors. It has been demonstrated that 15d-PGJ(2) potently increases the generation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1s); however, the mechanism of this induction is not known. The aim of the study was to find the pathway involved in 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated IL-8 stimulation. Our data confirmed that the effect of 15d-PGJ(2) is independent of PPARgamma. For the first time, we excluded the activation of G proteins and the contribution of G protein-coupled surface receptors in endothelial cells treated with 15d-PGJ(2). Instead, we demonstrated that stimulation of IL-8 involved induction of oxidative stress, activation of p38 kinases, and increase in stability of IL-8 mRNA. Upregulation of IL-8 promoter, although measurable, seemed to play a less-pronounced role. Additionally, our results indicate the involvement of cAMP elevation and may suggest a role for ATF2 transcription factor. Concomitant induction of heme oxygenase-1 in HMEC-1s did not influence the synthesis of IL-8. In summary, we showed that 15d-PGJ(2), acting through oxidative stress, may exert proinflammatory effects. The upregulation of IL-8 is mostly associated with p38-mediated stabilization of mRNA.