Toxicology letters

Use of long term dermal sensitization followed by intratracheal challenge method to identify low-dose chemical-induced respiratory allergic responses in mice.

PMID 18708131


The inhalation of many types of chemicals, including pesticides, perfumes, and other low-molecular weight chemicals, is a leading cause of allergic respiratory diseases. We attempted to develop a new test protocol to detect environmental chemical-related respiratory hypersensitivity at low and weakly immunogenic doses. We used long-term dermal sensitization followed by a low-dose intratracheal challenge to evaluate sensitization by the well-known respiratory sensitizers trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and the contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). After topically sensitizing BALB/c mice (9 times in 3 weeks) and challenging them intratracheally with TMA, TDI, or DNCB, we assayed differential cell counts and chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); lymphocyte counts, surface antigen expression of B cells, and local cytokine production in lung-associated lymph nodes (LNs); and antigen-specific IgE levels in serum and BALF. TMA induced marked increases in antigen-specific IgE levels in both serum and BALF, proliferation of eosinophils and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1beta) in BALF, and proliferation of Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13) in restimulated LN cells. TDI induced marked increases in levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-gamma) produced by restimulated LN cells. In contrast, DNCB treatment yielded, at most, small, nonsignificant increases in all parameters. Our protocol thus detected respiratory allergic responses to low-molecular weight chemicals and may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related respiratory allergy.

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1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic anhydride, 97%