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The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Mitochondria modulate Ca2+-dependent glutamate release from rat cortical astrocytes.


PMID 18815254

Abstract

Vesicular glutamate release from astrocytes depends on mobilization of free Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and extracellular space to elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(cyt)). Although mitochondria in neurons, and other secretory cells, have been shown to sequester free Ca(2+) and have been implicated in the modulation of Ca(2+)-dependent transmitter release, the role of mitochondria in Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes is not known. A pharmacological approach was taken to manipulate Ca(2+) accumulation in mitochondria and thereby affect Ca(2+)(cyt) of solitary astrocytes in response to mechanical stimuli. Ca(2+)(cyt) responses and levels of glutamate release were measured optically in parallel experiments using a fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator and an enzyme-linked assay, respectively. It was observed that inhibiting mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation is correlated to increased Ca(2+)(cyt) and glutamate release, whereas enhancing mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation is correlated to decreased Ca(2+)(cyt) and glutamate release. These observations suggest that, in addition to the activity of ER and plasma membrane ion channels, mitochondria modulate Ca(2+)(cyt) dynamics in astrocytes and play a role in Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes.

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