Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Prostaglandin E2 signals monocyte/macrophage survival to peroxynitrite via protein kinase A converging in bad phosphorylation with the protein kinase C alpha-dependent pathway driven by 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

PMID 18832722


Monocytes/macrophages committed to death by peroxynitrite nevertheless survive with a signaling response promoting Bad phosphorylation, as well as its cytosolic localization, via upstream activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), 5-lipoxygenase, and protein kinase C alpha. We now report evidence for an alternative mechanism converging in Bad phosphorylation when the expression/activity of the above enzymes are suppressed. Under these conditions, also associated with peroxynitrite-dependent severe inhibition of Akt, an additional Bad kinase, Bad dephosphorylation promoted its accumulation in the mitochondria and a prompt lethal response. PGE(2) prevented toxicity via EP(2) receptor-mediated protein kinase A-dependent Bad phosphorylation. This notion was established in U937 cells by the following criteria: 1) there was a strong correlation between survival and cAMP accumulation, both in the absence and presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors; 2) direct activation of adenylyl cyclase afforded cytoprotection; and 3) PGE(2) promoted loss of mitochondrial Bad and cytoprotection, mimicked by EP(2) receptor agonists, and prevented by EP(2) receptor antagonists or protein kinase A inhibitors. Finally, selected experiments performed in human monocytes/macrophages and in rat peritoneal macrophages indicated that the above cytoprotective pathway is a general response of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage to both exogenous and endogenous peroxynitrite. The notion that two different pathways mediated by downstream products of arachidonic acid metabolism converge in Bad phosphorylation emphasizes the relevance of this strategy for the regulation of macrophage survival to peroxynitrite at the inflammatory sites.