Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA

Cytoprotective effect of arjunolic acid in response to sodium fluoride mediated oxidative stress and cell death via necrotic pathway.

PMID 18845235


The present study was conducted to investigate the role of arjunolic acid (AA) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced cytotoxicity and necrotic cell death in murine hepatocytes. Dose-dependent studies suggest that incubation of hepatocytes with NaF (100mM) for 1h significantly decreased the cell viability as well as intracellular antioxidant power. Besides, NaF administration increased the activities of the membrane leakage enzymes and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species; decreased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, the glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents; and elevated the level of oxidised glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products as well as protein carbonyl content. In addition to the oxidative impairments, fluoride exposure caused hepatic cell death mainly via the necrotic pathway as supported by the flowcytometric and DNA fragmentation analyses. Incubation with AA (100 microg/ml) both prior to and in combination with NaF almost normalized the altered activities of antioxidant indexes. AA treatment enhanced the cellular antioxidant capability and protected hepatocytes against NaF-induced cytotoxicity and necrotic death. The cytoprotective activity of AA was found to be comparable to that of a known antioxidant, vitamin C. Combining, data suggest that AA plays a protective role against NaF-induced cellular damage and prevents hepatocytes from necrotic death.

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Arjunolic acid, ≥95% (LC/MS-ELSD)