Cancer research

Activated G(alpha)13 impairs cell invasiveness through p190RhoGAP-mediated inhibition of RhoA activity.

PMID 18922893


The GTPase RhoA is a downstream target of heterotrimeric G(13) proteins and plays key roles in cell migration and invasion. Here, we show that expression in human melanoma cells of a constitutively active, GTPase-deficient Galpha(13) form (G(alpha)(13)QL) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-promoted signaling through G(alpha)(13)-coupled receptors led to a blockade of chemokine-stimulated RhoA activation and cell invasion that was rescued by active RhoA. Melanoma cells expressing G(alpha)(13)QL or cells stimulated with LPC displayed an increase in p190RhoGAP activation, and defects in RhoA activation and invasion were recovered by knocking down p190RhoGAP expression, thus identifying this GTPase-activating protein (GAP) protein as a downstream G(alpha)(13) target that is responsible for these inhibitory responses. In addition, defective stress fiber assembly and reduced migration speed underlay inefficient invasion of G(alpha)(13)QL melanoma cells. Importantly, G(alpha)(13)QL expression in melanoma cells led to impairment in lung metastasis associated with prolonged survival in SCID mice. The data indicate that G(alpha)(13)-dependent downstream effects on RhoA activation and invasion tightly depend on cell type-specific GAP activities and that G(alpha)(13)-p190RhoGAP signaling might represent a potential target for intervention in melanoma metastasis.