Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Simultaneous inhibition of the constitutively activated nuclear factor kappaB and of the interleukin-6 pathways is necessary and sufficient to completely overcome apoptosis resistance of human U266 myeloma cells.

PMID 18931595


Elevated Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) levels have been reported in multiple myeloma cells derived from patients relapsing after chemotherapy. In the search of an in vitro a model with molecular features similar to relapsing lesions, we focused our attention on an IL-6 autocrine human myeloma cell line (U266), characterized by apoptosis resistance due to upregulation of two constitutive signaling pathways: NFkappaB and STAT-3. NFkappaB activity was inhibited with proteasome inhibitory agents, such as PS-341 and Withaferin A, with an IKK inhibitor (Wedelolactone) or with the adenoviral vector HD IkappaBalphamut-IRES-EGFP encoding a mutant IkappaBalpha protein, resistant to proteasomal degradation. We observed that the NFkappaB intracellular dislocation at the beginning of the treatment affected therapeutic effectiveness of PS-341, Withaferin A and Wedelolactone; interestingly, the adenoviral vector was highly effective in inducing apopotosis even with NFkappaB being predominantly nuclear at the time of infection. We also observed that U266 treated with the Interleukin-6 antagonist Sant7 exhibited reduced STAT3 activity and preferential cytoplasmic NFkappaB location; moreover they became capable of undergoing apoptosis mainly from the G1 phase. Adenoviral vector treated U266 have NFkappaB localized completely in the cytoplasm and also showed downregulation of nuclear phospho STAT-3. Finally, combined targeting of NFkappaB and STAT3 signalling pathways was the most effective treatment in inducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that combined NFkappaB and STAT3 targeting warrants further investigations in other apoptosis resistant MM cell lines as well as in suitable MM animal models.

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Wedelolactone, ≥98% (HPLC), powder