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The Journal of organic chemistry

Iron(III) chloride catalyzed oxidative coupling of aromatic nuclei.


PMID 19053195

Abstract

Easily available and nontoxic FeCl(3) catalyzes intramolecular oxidative coupling for the direct construction of the phenanthrene ring using meta-chloroperbenzoic acid as sole oxidant at room temperature in excellent yields. The mechanistic investigations show that FeCl(3)-catalyzed coupling proceeds through the heterolytic coupling (A(+) + B). The catalytic approach has been applied to intermolecular biaryl coupling of 2-naphthols and phenol ether.