Journal of biochemistry

Purification and characterization of a new GTP-binding protein of Mr 24,000 in bovine brain membranes.

PMID 1908860


A GTP-binding protein with an Mr of 24,000 was purified from a cholate extract of bovine brain membranes in addition to the previously reported alpha beta gamma-trimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). Partial amino acid sequence analysis of the purified 24-kDa protein revealed that it was not identical to any of the low Mr GTP-binding proteins already reported, but similar to the rac-gene products serving as the substrate of an ADP-ribosyltransferase (C3) purified from the culture medium of Clostridium botulinum type C. However, the 24-kDa protein was not ADP-ribosylated by the botulinum C3 enzyme. The 24-kDa protein was purified as a nucleotide-free form and characterized by the following unique properties distinct from those of alpha beta gamma-trimeric G proteins. (1) Mg2+ was essentially required for nucleotide binding to the 24-kDa protein; there was a progressive increase in its binding affinity for nucleotides as the concentration of the divalent cation was increased. (2) Nucleotides previously bound to the 24-kDa protein were rapidly dissociated from the protein in Mg(2+)-free medium, in accord with the fact that the protein was indeed purified as a nucleotide-free form with Mg(2+)-free solutions. (3) The 24-kDa protein apparently exhibited much lower GTPase activity than do alpha beta gamma-trimeric G proteins because the product GDP was released from the 24-kDa protein in exchange for the substrate GTP only at a very low rate. Based on these findings, a possible role of the 24-kDa protein in cellular signalling is discussed in comparison with well characterized alpha beta gamma-trimeric G proteins.