Journal of chromatography. A

Simultaneous conduction of two- and three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of aromatic amines in environmental water samples.

PMID 19108841


This paper describes a simultaneously performed two-/three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method for the determination of aromatic amines with a wide range of pK(a) (-4.25 to 4.6) and logK(OW) (0.9-2.8) values in environmental water samples. Analytes including aniline, 4-nitroaniline, 2,4-dinitroaniline and dicloran were extracted from basic aqueous samples (donor phase, DP) into the microliter volume of organic membrane phase impregnated into the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber wall, then back extracted into the acidified aqueous solution (acceptor phase, AP) filling in the lumen of the hollow fiber. The mass transfer of the analytes from the donor phase through the organic membrane phase into acceptor phase was driven by both the counter-coupled transport of hydrogen ions and the pH gradient. Afterwards, the hollow fiber was eluted with 50 microL methanol to capture the analytes from both the organic membrane and the acceptor phase. Factors relevant to the enrichment factors (EFs) were investigated. Under the optimized condition (DP: 100 mL of 0.1 M NaOH with 2 M Na(2)SO(4); organic phase: di-n-hexyl with 8% trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO); AP: 10 microL of 8 M HCl; extraction time of 80 min), the obtained EFs were 405-2000, dynamic linear ranges were 5-200 microg/L (R>0.9976), and limits of detection were 0.5-1.5 microg/L. The presence of humic acid (0-25 mg/L dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The proposed procedure worked very well for real environmental water samples with microgram per liter level of analytes, and good spike recoveries (80-103%) were obtained.