The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Thieno[2,3-c]isoquinolin-5-one, a potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, promotes atherosclerotic plaque regression in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: effects on inflammatory markers and lipid content.

PMID 19124646


We recently showed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is activated within atherosclerotic plaques in an animal model of atherosclerosis. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP or reduced expression in heterozygous animals interferes with atherogenesis and may promote factors of plaque stability, possibly reflecting changes in inflammatory and cellular factors consistent with plaque stability. The current study addresses the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of PARP promotes atherosclerotic plaque regression. Using a high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis apolipoprotein E(-/-) mouse model, we demonstrate that administration of the potent PARP inhibitor, thieno[2,3-c]isoquinolin-5-one (TIQ-A), when combined with a regular diet regimen during treatment, induced regression of established plaques. Plaque regression was associated with a reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, plaques of TIQ-A-treated mice were highly enriched with collagen and smooth muscle cells, displayed thick fibrous caps, and exhibited a marked reduction in CD68-positive macrophage recruitment and associated foam cell presence. These changes correlated with a significant decrease in expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, potentially as a result of a robust reduction in tumor necrosis factor expression. The PARP inhibitor appeared to affect cholesterol metabolism by affecting acyl-coenzymeA/cholesterol acyltransferase-1 expression but exerted no effect on cholesterol influx or efflux as assessed by an examination of the ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and the scavenger receptor-A expression levels in the different experimental groups. In accordance, PARP inhibition may prove beneficial not only in preventing atherogenesis but also in promoting regression of preexisting plaques.

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TIQ-A, ≥98% (HPLC), solid