Long-wavelength homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of amikacin in water samples.

PMID 19174243


A simple and rapid homogeneous enzyme immunoassay involving the use of the malic dehydrogenase enzyme and a long-wavelength fluorophor, the oxazine Cresyl Violet, is proposed for the determination of the antibiotic amikacin in water samples. An enzymatic tracer has been synthesized by covalent binding of amikacin to malic dehydrogenase via a carbodiimide derivative. Free tracer catalyses the reaction between Cresyl Violet and malic acid giving rise to a decrease in the fluorescence of the fluorophor. Kinetic curves for this reaction have been monitored at lambda(ex) 585 and lambda(em) 624 nm using the stopped-flow mixing technique, being the initial rate measured in only 2-3s. The dynamic range of the method is 1-15 ng mL(-1) and the detection limit is 0.3 ng mL(-1), using aqueous standard solutions or water samples. The precision, obtained at 1 and 5 ng mL(-1) and expressed as relative standard deviation, was 6.0 and 9.6%, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of drinking, river and wastewater samples. The sample pre-treatment involved a solid-phase extraction step for the clean-up of the samples. A recovery study was carried out to validate the method, being the values obtained in the range 80-114%, with a mean value of 96.7%.