Journal of hazardous materials

Ametryn degradation by aqueous chlorine: kinetics and reaction influences.

PMID 19423216


The chemical oxidation of the herbicide ametryn was investigated by aqueous chlorination between pH 4 and 10 at a temperature of 25 degrees C. Ametryn was found to react very rapidly with aqueous chlorine. The reaction kinetics can be well described by a second-order kinetic model. The apparent second-order rate constants are greater than 5 x 10(2)M(-1)s(-1) under acidic and neutral conditions. The reaction proceeds much more slowly under alkaline conditions. The predominant reactions were found to be the reactions of HOCl with neutral ametryn and the charged ametryn, with rate constants equal to 7.22 x 10(2) and 1.58 x 10(3)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The ametryn degradation rate increases with addition of bromide and decreases with addition of ammonia during the chlorination process. Based on elementary chemical reactions, a kinetic model of ametryn degradation by chlorination in the presence of bromide or ammonia ion was also developed. By employing this model, we estimate that the rate constants for the reactions of HOBr with neutral ametryn and charged ametryn were 9.07 x 10(3) and 3.54 x 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. These values are 10- to 10(3)-fold higher than those of HOCl, suggesting that the presence of bromine species during chlorination could significantly accelerate ametryn degradation.

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