The Journal of biological chemistry

Roles of human AND-1 in chromosome transactions in S phase.

PMID 19439411


Coordinated execution of DNA replication, checkpoint activation, and postreplicative chromatid cohesion is intimately related to the replication fork machinery. Human AND-1/chromosome transmission fidelity 4 is localized adjacent to replication foci and is required for efficient DNA synthesis. In S phase, AND-1 is phosphorylated in response to replication arrest in a manner dependent on checkpoint kinase, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related protein, and Cdc7 kinase but not on Chk1. Depletion of AND-1 increases DNA damage, delays progression of S phase, leads to accumulation of late S and/or G2 phase cells, and induces cell death in cancer cells. It also elevated UV-radioresistant DNA synthesis and caused premature recovery of replication after hydroxyurea arrest, indicating that lack of AND-1 compromises checkpoint activation. This may be partly due to the decreased levels of Chk1 protein in AND-1-depleted cells. Furthermore, AND-1 interacts with cohesin proteins Smc1, Smc3, and Rad21/Scc1, consistent with proposed roles of yeast counterparts of AND-1 in sister chromatid cohesion. Depletion of AND-1 leads to significant inhibition of homologous recombination repair of an I-SceI-driven double strand break. Based on these data, we propose that AND-1 coordinates multiple cellular events in S phase and G2 phase, such as DNA replication, checkpoint activation, sister chromatid cohesion, and DNA damage repair, thus playing a pivotal role in maintenance of genome integrity.

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