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International journal of cosmetic science

Studies on the skin uptake and efflux kinetics of N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine: an aromatic amine intermediate.


PMID 19456976

Abstract

Synopsis N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (N-PPDA), an industrial intermediate and hair dye ingredient, has been implicated in a variety of toxic symptoms including cutaneous manifestations. However, the role of physiological factors that may determine and modify its absorption and transport within and through the skin is not fully understood. The present study reveals that N-PPDA binds readily to skin showing saturation kinetics with Km and V(max) of 2.54 x 10(-4) M and 4.76 mumol g(-1) skin, respectively. The uptake was dependent upon the area of skin, concentration of the amine, exposure time, temperature and pH of the vehicle. Heat treatment facilitated the binding but temperatures abouv 50 degrees caused significant lowering of the uptake, indicating the possible involvement of collagen matrix. Skin lipids also contributed in the binding of N-PPDA. Bioinhibitors such as KCN, sodium arsenate, NaF, N-ethylmaleimide, cycloheximide, iodoacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol had no effect on the uptake potential, suggesting it to be a non-energy dependent process. Most of the skin-bound N-PPDA was effluxed through serum proteins reaching the target organs via systemic circulation.

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241393
N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, 98%
C12H12N2