Photonucleophilic addition of the epsilon-amino group of lysine to a triflusal metabolite as a mechanistic key to photoallergy mediated by the parent drug.

PMID 19462393


A mechanism for triflusal-induced photoallergy involving complexation of 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid with site I of human serum albumin and subsequent formation of a covalent adduct by photoreaction between a metabolite and a neighboring lysine residue is proposed. This is supported by the observed photobinding to poly-L-lysine. Thereby, a photoantigen is generated, which is a likely trigger of the immune response.The goal of the work presented herein is to gain deeper insight into the molecular basis of photoallergy mediated by triflusal through its active metabolite, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (HTB). For this purpose, the interaction between HTB and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence and laser flash photolysis to monitor inclusion into the protein binding sites through variation in the excited-state properties. A remarkable lengthening of HTB triplet lifetime in the presence of HSA was observed. The use of oleic acid as a displacement probe clearly suggests the preference for dark binding in site I. The mechanism of photobinding was studied by irradiation of HTB in the presence of amino acids, and, in the case of lysine, a photoadduct was detected that arises from nucleophilic attack by the epsilon-amino group to the trifluoromethyl substituent of HTB. Accordingly, photobinding of the metabolite to poly-L-lysine was also observed. Overall, these results are consistent with a mechanism for triflusal photoallergy involving complexation of HTB to site I of HSA and subsequent formation of a covalent photoadduct with one neighboring lysine residue.

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