Sex differences in effects on sexual development in rat offspring after pre- and postnatal exposure to triphenyltin chloride.

PMID 19464569


Consumers are exposed to organotin compounds (OTCs) via contaminated fish and seafood due to the accumulation of these compounds in marine organisms. Certain OTCs are immunotoxic and may also have endocrine disrupting properties resulting in adverse effects on the reproductive tract in mollusks and mammals. Since effects of in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals on the reproductive system are dependent on the critical window of exposure during its development, we conducted a comprehensive study with the aim to identify the most sensitive window of exposure to TPTCl and to investigate the effects of pre- and postnatal treatment on sexual development in rats. Male and female offspring rats were exposed to 2 or 6 mg TPTCl/kg b.w. and day either in utero and during lactation (gestation day 6 until weaning on PND 21) or from gestation day 6 until termination. As previously reported, offspring in the 6 mg TPTCl dose group exhibited high perinatal mortality and therefore no further evaluation was carried out at this dose level (Grote, K., Hobler, C, Andrade, A.J.M., Wichert Grande, S., Gericke, C., Talsness, C.E., Appel, K.E., Chahoud, I., 2007. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Toxicology 238, 177-185). In the present paper, results on postnatal development obtained from surviving offspring of dams exposed to 2mg TPTCl/kg b.w. are reported. Male offspring were sacrificed on PND 64 or 65 and female offspring at first estrus after PND 58. A clear sex difference in response to treatment was observed. Male postnatal development was severely affected with decreases in body weight gain, reproductive organ weights and testosterone concentration as well as a significant delay in the age at preputial separation. In contrast, females exhibited a precocious completion of vaginal opening while all other endpoints were unaffected. Most of these effects were already present in animals that were only exposed until weaning indicating that these effects may be irreversible and continued treatment until termination had contributed less than expected to the severity of the observed effects. The results of the present study suggest that the sensitive window for the evaluated endpoints seems to be the period of prenatal development and that male offspring rats were more susceptible to treatment.

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Fentin chloride, PESTANAL®, analytical standard