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Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals

Analysis of myosmine, cotinine and nicotine in human toenail, plasma and saliva.


PMID 19476410

Abstract

Myosmine is a minor tobacco alkaloid with widespread occurrence in the human diet. Myosmine is genotoxic in human cells and is readily nitrosated and peroxidated yielding reactive intermediates with carcinogenic potential. For biomonitoring of short-term and long-term exposure, analytical methods were established for determination of myosmine together with nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva and toenail by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Validation of the method with samples of 14 smokers and 10 non-smokers showed smoking-dependent differences of myosmine in toenails (66 +/- 56 vs 21 +/- 15 ng g(-1), p <0.01) as well as saliva (2.54 +/- 2.68 vs 0.73 +/- 0.65 ng ml(-1), p <0.01). However, these differences were much smaller than those with nicotine (1971 +/- 818 vs 132 +/- 82 ng g(-1), p <0.0001) and cotinine (1237 +/- 818 vs <35 ng g(-1)) in toenail and those of cotinine (97.43 +/- 84.54 vs 1.85 +/- 4.50 ng ml(-1), p <0.0001) in saliva. These results were confirmed in plasma samples from 84 patients undergoing gastro-oesophageal endoscopy. Differences between 25 smokers and 59 non-smokers are again much lower for myosmine (0.30 +/- 0.35 vs 0.16 +/- 0.18 ng ml(-1), p <0.05) than for cotinine (54.67 +/- 29.63 vs 0.61 +/- 1.82 ng ml(-1), p <0.0001). In conclusion, sources other than tobacco contribute considerably to the human body burden of myosmine.

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M8765
Myosmine, ≥98%
C9H10N2