Mutation research

Induction of SCEs in CHL cells by dichlorobiphenyl derivative water pollutants, 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA) congeners and river water concentrates.

PMID 19545646


We recently identified dichlorobiphenyl (DCB) derivatives and 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA) congeners as major mutagenic constituents of the waters of the Waka River and the Yodo River system in Japan, respectively. In this study we examined sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by two dichlorobiphenyl derivatives, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichloro-5-nitrobiphenyl (5-nitro-DCB); three PBTA congeners, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-1), 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)ethylamino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-2), and 2-[2-(acetylamino)amino]-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6); and water concentrates from the Waka River in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Concentration-dependent induction of SCE was found for all DCBs and PBTAs examined in the presence of S9 mix, and statistically significant increases of SCEs were detected at 2 microg per ml of medium or higher concentrations. SCE induction of MeIQx was examined to compare genotoxic activities of these water pollutants. According to the results, a ranking of the SCE-inducing potency of these compounds is the following: 5-nitro-DCB approximately MeIQx>PBTA6>PBTA-1 approximately PBTA-2>DCB. Water samples collected at a site at the Waka River showed concentration-related increases in SCEs at 6.25-18.75 ml-equivalent of river water per ml of medium with S9 mix. The concentrations of 5-nitro-DCB and DCB in the river water samples were from 2.5 to 19.4 ng/l and from 4100 to 18,900 ng/l, respectively. However, these chemicals showed only small contribution to SCE induction by the Waka River water.