European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

Improvement of cyclosporine A bioavailability by incorporating ethyl docosahexaenoate in the microemulsion as an oil excipient.

PMID 19560537


The aims of this study were to determine the effect of ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA-EE) on cyclosporine A (CsA) bioavailability, while also examining the effect of DHA-EE on CsA when DHA-EE was incorporated into a microemulsion formulation as an oil ingredient. The oral co-administration of DHA-EE and CsA increased the blood CsA concentration in a dose-dependent manner, and the AUC and C(max) both increased by about 2-fold with 100mg/kg DHA-EE. The microemulsion formulation of CsA consisted of Tween-20, ethanol, water, and DHA-EE (53.3/6.5/35.9/3.3 w/w%) (namely DHA-ME) was transparent and stable with an average particle size of 50 nm, which was similar to that of the control formulation incorporating vitamin E instead of DHA-EE (namely VE-ME). The permeabilities of CsA from DHA-ME, VE-ME and Neoral formulations across an artificial membrane were not significantly different. The C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) of CsA in rats administered DHA-ME significantly increased by approximately 2-fold in comparison to that of VE-ME. The relative oral bioavailability (F(r)) of DHA-ME in comparison to Neoral was determined to be 114%, while the F(r) of VE-ME was only 60%. It was, therefore, suggested that the use of DHA-EE as an oil excipient may be promising for the development of a microemulsion formulation of CsA with an improved oral bioavailability.