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Journal of neurology

Type II sialidosis: review of the clinical spectrum and identification of a new splicing defect with chitotriosidase assessment in two patients.


PMID 19568825

Abstract

Sialidosis is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase-1 (NEU1). Sialidosis is classified into two main clinical variants: Type I, the milder form of the disease, and Type II, which can in turn be subdivided into three forms: congenital, infantile and juvenile. We report herein the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterisation of two patients with Type II sialidosis exhibiting the congenital (P1) and infantile forms (P2). We also review clinical data on the rare Type II forms of sialidosis in the hope of improving understanding of the disorder and facilitating its diagnosis. The genetic characterization of the two patients showed one known [c. 679G > A (p.G227R)] NEU1 missense mutation (detected in P2), and the new c.807 + 1G > A splicing defect (detected in P1), a genetic lesion that is extremely rare in this disease. Interestingly, P2 presented an extremely elevated level of chitotriosidase in plasma. This is the first pathological detection of chitotriosidase in sialidosis patients.