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Luminescence : the journal of biological and chemical luminescence

Enhancement of chemiluminescence of the KIO4-luminol system by gallic acid, acetaldehyde and Mn2+: application for the determination of catecholamines.


PMID 19630085

Abstract

Chemiluminescence (CL) from the oxidation of luminol with potassium periodate in strong alkaline solutions was greatly enhanced by the combined effect of gallic acid, acetaldehyde and Mn(2+). The CL spectra exhibited only one emission band at 425 nm, indicating 3-aminophthalate as the emitting species. Various scavengers for superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen quenched the CL emission very efficiently (74-100%), suggesting the possible involvement of these reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CL reactions. It is postulated that oxidation of gallic acid and acetaldehyde by periodate catalyzed by Mn(2+) generates these ROS, which then react with luminol to enhance the CL emission. We also found that the enhanced CL emission was strongly inhibited by catecholamines, probably because of their effective scavenging of ROS. Based on this observation, a simple, rapid and sensitive new CL method was developed for the determination of catecholamines. The detection limits (3sigma) for dopamine, l-dopa, norepinephrine and epinephrine were 0.63, 1.37, 0.56 and 14.3 nmol/L, respectively. The linear range was 1-10 nmol/L; relative standard deviations were 0.71-1.34% for 0.1 micromol/mL catecholamines. This CL method was applied to the determination of catecholamines in pharmaceutical injections with satisfactory results.