Chemical research in toxicology

Apoptotic and necrotic action mechanisms of trimethyltin in human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells.

PMID 19655806


In evaluating the cytotoxic effects and the mechanisms of the apoptotic and necrotic actions of trimethyltin chloride (TMT) on human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells, the present study focused on the involvement of antiproliferation, DNA damage, cell death, apoptosis-related proteins, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity. Twenty-four hour TMT treatments (4-64 microM) induced apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells. Thirty-two micromolar and higher concentration significantly increases cell death. DNA damage was observed at 8 microM. Additionally, TMT increased the activity of cellular caspase-3 and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data demonstrated that the Bcl-2 family of proteins was involved in the apoptotic process but that p53 expression level was not affected. The results of luciferase reporter assay indicated that TMT-induced apoptosis seemed to adopt a transcription-dependent route, by activating p53 target genes such as PUMA and p21.