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Environmental science & technology

Laboratory assessment of emission reduction strategies for the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin.


PMID 19673309

Abstract

With the increased use of the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), it is important that strategies to reduce emissions of these fumigant from soil to the air are assessed to protect air quality. Using an established soil column approach, the following emission reduction strategies were compared to a control: (1) spray application of ammonium thiosulfate to the soil surface; (2) deep injection at 46 cm depth; (3) high density polyethylene sealed over the soil surface; (4) virtually impermeable film sealed over the soil surface; and (5) irrigation with ammonium thiosulfate solution. Relative to the control, 1,3-D emissions were reduced by 26.1, 1.0, 0.01, 94.2, and 42.5%, for treatments 1 through 5, respectively. For CP the reductions were 41.6, 23.3, 94.6, 99.9, and 87.5% for treatments 1 through 5, respectively. Virtually impermeable film gave the greatest reductions for both fumigants, while HDPE was very effective only for CP. Despite offering less significant emission reductions, the lower cost alternatives to tarping, particularly irrigation with ATS solution, may offer substantial benefitwhere tarping is not economically viable.