Analytica chimica acta

Determination of benzimidazolic fungicides in fruits and vegetables by supramolecular solvent-based microextraction/liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection.

PMID 19720194


A supramolecular solvent consisting of vesicles, made up of equimolecular amounts of decanoic acid (DeA) and tetrabutylammonium decanoate (Bu4NDe), dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase, is proposed for the extraction of benzimidazolic fungicides (BFs) from fruits and vegetables. Carbendazim (CB), thiabendazole (TB) and fuberidazole (FB) were extracted in a single step and no clean-up or concentration of extracts was needed. The high extraction efficiency obtained for BFs was a result of the different types of interactions provided by the supramolecular solvent (e.g. hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds) and the high number of solubilisation sites it contains. Besides simple and efficient, the proposed extraction approach was rapid, low-cost, environment friendly and it was implemented using conventional lab equipments. The target analytes were determined in the supramolecular extract by LC/fluorescence detection. They were separated in a Kromasil C18 (5 microm, 150 mm x 4.6 mm) column using isocratic elution [mobile phase: 60:40 (v/v) 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 4)/methanol] and quantified at 286/320 nm (CB) and 300/350 nm (TB and FB) excitation/emission wavelengths, respectively. Quantitation limits provided by the supramolecular solvent-based microextraction (SUSME)/LC/fluorescence detection proposed method for the determination of CB, TB and FB in fruits and vegetables were 14.0, 1.3 and 0.03 microg kg(-1), respectively, values far below the current maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union, i.e. 100-2000 microg kg(-1) for CB, 50-5000 microg kg(-1) for TB and 50 microg kg(-1) for FB. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, for inter-day measurements (n=13) was 3.3% for CB (50 microg kg(-1)), 3.5% for TB (10 microg kg(-1)) and 2.8% for FB (0.5 microg kg(-1)) and recoveries for fruits (oranges, tangerines, lemons, limes, grapefruits, apples, pears and bananas) and vegetables (potatoes and lettuces) fortified at the microg kg(-1) level were in the interval 93-102%.

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Fuberidazole, PESTANAL®, analytical standard