Insect molecular biology

Identification of pyrethroid resistance associated mutations in the para sodium channel of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

PMID 19754737


We investigated pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae strains from Greece. Combined bioassay, biochemical and synergistic data indicated that although P450 mono-oxygenase activities were associated with the trait, target site insensitivity was the major resistance component. A 3.3 kb cDNA fragment of the T. urticae para sodium channel gene encompassing segment 4 of domain II to segment 6 of domain IV was obtained by a degenerate PCR strategy. The T. urticae sequence showed highest identity (56%) to the scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, and was phylogenetically classified within the divergent group of Arachnida. Comparison of resistant and susceptible strains identified the point mutation F1538I in segment 6 of domain III, which is known to confer strong resistance to pyrethroids, along with a second mutation (A1215D) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III with an unknown role. Three transcripts were identified corresponding to the k and l alternative exons. The mode of inheritance of resistance was confirmed as incompletely recessive, which is consistent with a target site mechanism for pyrethroids.