Chemical research in toxicology

Mass spectrometric analysis of a cyclic 7,8-butanoguanine adduct of N-nitrosopyrrolidine: comparison to other N-nitrosopyrrolidine adducts in rat hepatic DNA.

PMID 19761253


The well established rat hepatocarcinogen N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR, 1) requires metabolic activation to DNA adducts to express its carcinogenic activity. Among the NPYR-DNA adducts that have been identified, the cyclic 7,8-butanoguanine adduct 2-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-9-hydroxypyrido[2,1-f]purine-4(3H)-one (6) has been quantified using moderately sensitive methods, but its levels have never been compared to those of other DNA adducts of NPYR in rat hepatic DNA. Therefore, in this study, we developed a sensitive new LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM method for the quantitation of adduct 6 and compared its levels to those of several other NPYR-DNA adducts formed by different mechanisms. The new method was shown to be accurate and precise, with good recoveries and low fmol detection limits. Rats were treated with NPYR by gavage at doses of 46, 92, or 184 mg/kg body weight and sacrificed 16 h later. Hepatic DNA was isolated and analyzed for NPYR-DNA adducts. Adduct 6 was by far the most prevalent, with levels ranging from about 900-3000 micromol/mol Gua and responsive to dose. Levels of adducts formed from crotonaldehyde, a metabolite of NPYR, were about 0.2-0.9 micromol/mol dGuo, while those of adducts resulting from reaction with DNA of tetrahydrofuranyl-like intermediates were in the range of 0.01-4 micromol/mol deoxyribonucleoside. The results of this study demonstrate that, among typical NPYR-DNA adducts, adduct 6 is easily the most abundant in hepatic DNA. Since previous studies have shown that it can be detected in the urine of NPYR-treated rats, the results suggest that it is a potential candidate as a biomarker for assessing human exposure to and metabolic activation of NPYR.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

1-Nitrosopyrrolidine, 99%