Brain research

Role of adenosine A(1) receptor in the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area in sleep-wake regulation in rats.

PMID 19781535


The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the regulation of arousal. The PF-LHA contains wake-active neurons that are quiescent during non-REM sleep and in the case of neurons expressing the peptide hypocretin (HCRT), quiescent during both non-REM and REM sleep. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep factor and recent evidence suggests that adenosine via A(1) receptors may act on PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep. We examined the effects of bilateral activation as well as blockade of A(1) receptors in the PF-LHA on sleep-wakefulness in freely behaving rats. The sleep-wake profiles of male Wistar rats were recorded during reverse microdialysis perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and two doses of adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (CPDX; 5 microM and 50 microM) or A(1) receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 5 microM and 50 microM) into the PF-LHA for 2 h followed by 4 h of aCSF perfusion. CPDX perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-on phase produced arousal (F=7.035, p<0.001) and concomitantly decreased both non-REM (F=7.295, p<0.001) and REM sleep (F=3.456, p<0.004). In contrast, CPA perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-off phase significantly suppressed arousal (F=7.891, p<0.001) and increased non-REM (F=8.18, p <0.001) and REM sleep (F=30.036, p<0.001). These results suggest that PF-LHA is one of the sites where adenosine, acting via A(1) receptors, inhibits PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep.