Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN

Bone disease in medullary sponge kidney and effect of potassium citrate treatment.

PMID 19808216


In medullary sponge kidney (MSK)-a common malformative renal condition in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis-hypercalciuria, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, and hypocitraturia are common. Clinical conditions with concomitant hypercalciuria and/or incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis are almost invariably associated with bone disease, making osteopathy highly likely in MSK, too. Patients with MSK have never been investigated for osteopathy; neither has the potential effect of potassium citrate administration (CA) on their urinary metabolic risk factors and on bone mineralization. These issues were retrospectively analyzed in 75 patients with MSK and primary stone risk factor (PSRF; hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria, and/or hyperoxaluria) on an outpatient basis; 65 received CA (2.9 +/- 0.8 g/d), whereas 10 received only general "stone clinic" suggestions. The 24-h urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, oxalate, uric acid, and citrate; morning urine pH; serum biochemistry; and bone mineral density were investigated at baseline and at the end of follow-up (78 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 15 mo in groups A and B, respectively). CA led to a significant rise in urinary pH and citrate and decreased urinary calcium and phosphate (all P < 0.001). Patients with MSK and PSRF had reduced bone density. Bone density improved significantly in the group that was treated with oral CA. Bone disease is very frequent in patients with MSK and concomitant PSRF. Long-term CA improves bone density. The concurrent effects of treatment on PSRF suggest that the subtle acidosis plays a pivotal role in bone disease and hypercalciuria in patients with MSK.