Cell regulation

ATP-dependent and ATP-independent pathways of exocytosis revealed by interchanging glutamate and chloride as the major anion in permeabilized mast cells.

PMID 1983110


Most investigations of the mechanism of regulated exocytosis have involved the use of secretory cells permeabilized in glutamate-based electrolyte solutions. In our previous work we have used NaCl-based electrolyte solutions. For secretion to occur from rat mast cells under these latter conditions, a dual effector system comprising Ca2+ and a guanine nucleotide are required; together they are sufficient. Here we compare the secretion from mast cells permeabilized in solutions of different electrolytes. Replacement of Na+ by K+ had little effect. Replacement of Cl- by Br-, SO4-, gluconate, isethionate, acetate, tartrate, succinate, etc. affected the maximal extent of secretion elicited by the dual effectors Ca2+ and guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (Ca2(+)-plus-GTP-gamma-S) but had little influence on the effective affinity for Ca2+. The dicarboxylic amino acids (L- and D-glutamate, and L-aspartate) permitted exocytosis to be elicited by Ca2+ or GTP-gamma-S alone. Secretion stimulated by GTP-gamma-S is strongly inhibited by Cl- (50% inhibition by 20 mM Cl-), whereas the extent of Ca2(+)-induced secretion is proportional to the concentration of glutamate in mixed electrolyte buffers. Unlike dual-effector stimulation, secretion due to the single effectors requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase C. These results point to the existence of two parallel pathways for control of exocytosis in permeabilized cells, one ATP dependent, the other ATP independent.