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Chemosphere

Biodegradation of fomesafen by strain Lysinibacillus sp. ZB-1 isolated from soil.


PMID 19846192

Abstract

The fomesafen degrading bacterium ZB-1 was isolated from contaminated agricultural soil, and identified as Lysinibacillus sp. based on the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The strain could utilize fomesafen as the sole carbon source for growth, and the total degradation rate was 81.32% after 7 d of inoculation in mineral salts medium. Strain ZB-1 could also degrade other diphenyl ethers including lactofen and fluoroglycofen. The optimum temperature for fomesafen degradation by strain ZB-1 was 30 degrees C. The effect of fomesafen concentration on degradation was also examined. Cell-free extract of strain ZB-1 was able to degrade fomesafen and other diphenyl ethers. Metabolism of fomesafen was accompanied by a transient accumulation of a metabolite identified as [N-[4-{4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy}-2-methanamidephenyl]acetamide] using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, thus indicating a metabolic pathway involving reduction, acetylation of nitro groups and dechlorination. The inoculation of strain ZB-1 to soil treated with fomesafen resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soil regardless of the soil sterilized or nonsterilized.

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