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Pain

Cholecystokinin receptors mediate tolerance to the analgesic effect of TENS in arthritic rats.


PMID 19944533

Abstract

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment for pain that involves placement of electrical stimulation through the skin for pain relief. Previous work from our laboratory shows that repeated application of TENS produces analgesic tolerance by the fourth day and a concomitant cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. Prior pharmacological studies show that blockade of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors systemically and spinally prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated doses of opioid agonists. We therefore hypothesized that systemic and intrathecal blockade of CCK receptors would prevent the development of analgesic tolerance to TENS, and cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. In animals with knee joint inflammation (3% kaolin/carrageenan), high (100Hz) or low frequency (4Hz) TENS was applied daily and the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the muscle and paw were examined. We tested thresholds before and after inflammation, and before and after TENS. Animals treated systemically, prior to TENS, with the CCK antagonist, proglumide, did not develop tolerance to repeated application of TENS on the fourth day. Spinal blockade of CCK-A or CCK-B receptors blocked the development of tolerance to high and low frequency TENS, respectively. In the same animals we show that spinal blockade of CCK-A receptors prevents cross-tolerance at spinal delta-opioid receptors that normally occurs with high frequency TENS; and blockade of CCK-B receptors prevents cross-tolerance at spinal mu-opioid receptors that normally occurs with low frequency TENS. Thus, we conclude that blockade of CCK receptors prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated application of TENS in a frequency-dependent manner.

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S2812
SNC80, ≥98% (HPLC), solid
C28H39N3O2