AIDS research and human retroviruses

Mode of coreceptor use by R5 HIV type 1 correlates with disease stage: a study of paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid isolates.

PMID 20001314


Through the use of chimeric CXCR4/CCR5 receptors we have previously shown that CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 isolates acquire a more flexible receptor use over time, and that this links to a reduced viral susceptibility to inhibition by the CCR5 ligand RANTES. These findings may have relevance with regards to the efficacy of antiretroviral compounds that target CCR5/virus interactions. Compartmentalized discrepancies in coreceptor use may occur, which could also affect the efficacy of these compounds at specific anatomical sites, such as within the CNS. In this cross-sectional study we have used wild-type CCR5 and CXCR4 as well as chimeric CXCR4/CCR5 receptors to characterize coreceptor use by paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates from 28 HIV-1-infected individuals. Furthermore, selected R5 isolates, with varying chimeric receptor use, were tested for sensitivity to inhibition by the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. Discordant CSF/plasma virus coreceptor use was found in 10/28 patients. Low CD4+ T cell counts correlated strongly with a more flexible mode of R5 virus CCR5 usage, as disclosed by an increased ability to utilize chimeric CXCR4/CCR5 receptors, specifically receptor FC-2. Importantly, an elevated ability to utilize chimeric receptors correlated with a reduced susceptibility to inhibition by TAK-779. Our findings show that a discordant CSF and plasma virus coreceptor use is not uncommon. Furthermore, we provide support for an emerging paradigm, where the acquisition of a more flexible mode of CCR5 usage is a key event in R5 virus pathogenesis. This may, in turn, negatively impact the efficacy of CCR5 antagonist treatment in late stage HIV-1 disease.

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SML0911 TAK-779, ≥98% (HPLC)