International endodontic journal

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium percarbonate: a comparison with bleaching agents commonly used in discoloured pulpless teeth.

PMID 20078698


To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium percarbonate (SPC) in comparison with bleaching agents used on discoloured pulpless teeth. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of bleaching agents were evaluated both in their pure form as well as at concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), carbamide peroxide (CP), sodium perborate (SP) and SPC were diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in series. To evaluate the cytotoxicity, the survival of 3T3/NIH mouse fibroblasts was measured photometrically using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after a 24 h-exposure period. Genotoxicity was indicated by micronuclei (MN) formation, and modification of the normal cell was analysed by light microscopy (400x). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way anova, followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey post hoc test (P < 0.05). All groups exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity. However, CP showed a similar cytotoxic effect when compared with DMEM-untreated control (UC) group. HP and SPC were significantly more cytotoxic than SP. The genotoxicity test showed that SPC and SP had an intermediate rate of MN frequency when compared with the UC group. The mean rate of MN frequency for HP was higher and statistically more significant than for the other groups tested. No difference was observed when CP and UC groups were compared. Sodium percarbonate showed cytotoxicity and genotoxicity similar to those of the other products tested. However, before SPC is used clinically, studies should be conducted to confirm its safety in vivo.