Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Persistence and nematicidal efficacy of carbosulfan, cadusafos, phorate, and triazophos in soil and uptake by chickpea and tomato crops under tropical conditions.

PMID 20085277


The productivity of chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.), and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), is adversely affected by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne species. Nematode-resistant chickpea and tomato are lacking except for a few varieties and therefore grower demand is not met. The available nematicides, namely, carbosulfan, cadusafos, phorate, and triazophos, were, therefore evaluated for their efficacy and persistence in soil and crops to devise nematode management decisions. In alluvial soil, cadusafos was the most persistent nematicide followed by phorate, carbosulfan, and triazophos in that order. The percent dissipation of cadusafos was greater (P < 0.05) in chickpea than in tomato plots, which influenced its half-life in soil. Nematicide residues were differentially taken up by chickpea and tomato plant roots with active absorption continuing for up to 45 days. Cadusafos and triazophos were absorbed to greater extent (P < 0.05) in tomato than in chickpea. The translocation of residues to shoot was highest by day 15 for cadusafos and at day 45 for other nematicides, with carbosulfan residues translocated the most. Nematicide residue concentrations in shoots never exceeded those in roots, with residues in both roots and shoots persisting beyond 90 days. Nematicide residues in green seeds of chickpea and tomato fruits were all below the Codex/German MRLs of 0.02, including the Indian tolerances of 0.1 microg/g in fruits and vegetables. Cadusafos was found to be the most effective nematicide followed by triazophos against Meloidogyne incognita and reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis . Application of cadusafos (Rugby 10 G) or, alternatively, spray application of triazophos (Hostathion 40 EC) in planting furrows, both at 1.0 kg of active ingredient/ha, followed by light irrigation is recommended for the effective control of M. incognita and R. reniformis infestations on chickpea and tomato.

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Phorate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Triazophos, PESTANAL®, analytical standard